Antimicrobial Growth Promoters by D.Barug,J.de Jong,A.K.Kies, M.W.A.Verstegen  - click for bigger image

Antimicrobial Growth Promoters
by D.Barug,J.de Jong,A.K.Kies, M.W.A.Verstegen

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About this book

This book contains peer-reviewed papers presented at the international conference "Antimicrobial Growth Promoters: Worldwide Ban on the Horizon?". The book is filled with valuable information on the pros and cons of use of AGPs as well as on alternative nutritional solutions.

It is widely acknowledged that the inclusion of antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) in the diet of livestock increases growth rate. However, many questions arise on whether the benefits outweigh the risks, or vice versa. Recent legislative developments in the European Union and USA, recommendations by the World Health Organization, initiatives taken by the food chain, and consumer concerns all point to a widespread (voluntary) removal of antibiotic feed additives for animal growth promotion. In particular, Regulation (EC) 1831/2003 lays down provisions phasing out the authorisations of AGPs in the European Union as from 1 January 2006.

This book discusses how this will affect the use/non-use practice of AGPs. Attention is given to the current status and rational design of developments and strategies for animal feeding without the inclusion of AGPs. Topics covered include benefits and risks of AGPs, risk assessment, consumer concerns and demands, regulatory aspects and international developments, mode of action and innovative alternatives, and recent advances in the analysis of AGPs and related products.


Ideal for professionals and researchers in the feed and food industry.

Contents

Current use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals: the benefits 19 S.W. Page
Abstract 19
1. Introduction 19
2. History 21
3. Mode of action 22
4. Applications and benefits of AGPs 26
5. Variation in response to AGPs 28
6. Recent reviews 30
7. Emerging applications 33
8. Conclusions 41
References 42

Use of antimicrobial growth promoters in food animals: the risks outweigh the benefits 53 H.C. Wegener
Abstract 53
1. Introduction 53
2. European perspective on AGPs 54
3. Countries’ experience with phasing out AGPs 54
4. Risk-benefit considerations 56
5. Conclusions 58
References 58

Antimicrobial growth promoters: consumer concerns and demands 59 L. Reijnders
Abstract 59
1. Introduction 59
2. Links with a wider debate about intensive animal husbandry 60
3. Alternatives 61
4. Trust in industry and regulators 61
5. Nature of NGO concerns with risks of antimicrobial growth promoters 6210 Antimicrobial growth promoters
6. Conclusion 64
References 65

Phasing out antibiotic feed additives in the EU: worldwide relevance for animal food production 69 A. Chesson
Abstract 69
1. Introduction 69
2. The European reaction 70
3. The Danish “experiment” 72
4. Relevance of the Danish experiment to other countries 74
5. Responses in industrialised countries 75
6. International bodies and AGPs 77
7. AGPs in developing countries 78
8. Conclusions 79
References 79

Non-human usage of antimicrobials: recent developments at FAO/WHO/OIE 83 H. Kruse and J. Schlundt
Abstract 83
1. Introduction 83
2. Past activities by WHO, FAO and OIE relating to non-human antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance 85
3. Outcome of the first joint FAO/OIE/WHO expert workshop on non-human antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance: Scientific assessment 88
4. Outcome of the second joint FAO/OIE/WHO expert workshop on non-human antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance: Management options 91
5. Follow-up of the joint FAO/OIE/WHO expert workshops on nonhuman antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance 92
6. Antimicrobial growth promoters 93
7. Conclusion 94
References 94

Risk analysis applied to antimicrobial resistance: the OIE approach 97 J.F. Acar
1. Introduction 97
2. Risk assessment for analysing the risks to animal and public health from antimicrobial resistant microorganisms of animal origin 98

Potential human health impacts of banning antibiotics used in food animals: a case study of virginiamycin 107
T. Cox
Abstract 107
1. Introduction 107
2. Modelling approach, data and methods: The RRRT risk assessment framework 108
3. Results 117
4. Discussion 119
5. Conclusions 121
Acknowledgments 122
References 122

Terminated use of antimicrobial growth promoters in pig production in Denmark: effects on pig welfare and productivity 127 N. Kjeldsen and J. Callesen
Abstract 127
1. Introduction 128
2. Impact of AGP termination on productivity 128
3. Economic impact of AGP termination in Denmark 132
4. Impact on the total consumption of antibiotics 133
5. Impact on antimicrobial resistance 134
6. Conclusion 134
References 135

Termination of AGP use and effect on subsequent production of broiler chickens in Sweden and Denmark during a 25-year period 137 M. Wierup and H.C. Wegener
Abstract 137
1. Introduction 137
2. Material and methods 138
3. Results 139
4. Discussion 145
5. Conclusion 146
Acknowledgements 146
References 146

Molecular basis for AGP effects in poultry 149 M.D. Lee, J. Lu, B. Harmon, C.L. Hofacre, and J.J. Maurer
Abstract 149
1. Introduction 149
2. Materials and methods 152
3. Results and discussion 153
4. Conclusions 159
References 160

Rational development of novel microbial modulators 165 J. Apajalahti and A. Kettunen
Abstract 165
1. Introduction 165
2. Antibiotics and coccidiostats as microbial modulators 167
3. Important shifts in intestinal microbial community 171
4. Ranking of microbial modulators by simulation 172
5. Examples of product development by in vitro simulations 174
6. Significance of the product comparison 178
7. Conclusions 179
Acknowledgements 180
References 180

Use of in vitro models of the gastrointestinal tract (TIM systems and bioassays) for studying replacements for AGPs 183 R. Havenaar, M. Minekus and K. Venema
Abstract 183
1. Introduction 184
2. Dynamic gastrointestinal systems 184
3. Digestion and availability for absorption 186
4 Organic acids 187
5. Probiotics 188
6. Prebiotics and dietary fibres 189
7. Impact on health of the activity of the large-intestinal microbiota 190
8. Conclusion 192
References 192

An overview of the Feedstuffs-RADIUS project: rapid detection of banned antibiotics in animal feeds 195 C.T. Elliott, C. Situ, C. van Poucke
Abstract 195
1. Introduction 196
2. Banned growth promoters 197
3. Development of RADIUS screening tests 197
4. Development of confirmatory tests 206
5. Survey of animal feeds 208
6. The future of RADIUS methods 209
Acknowledgements 210
References 210

Towards a control strategy for banned antibiotics and growth promoters in feed: the SIMBAG-FEED project 211
J. de Jong, M.J.H. Tomassen, H.J. van Egmond, J.A. van Rhijn, T. Zuidema,J. Michard, C. Genouel, G. Brambilla, J.M.G. Nunes da Costa, E. Nordkvist,W. Wagner, A. Thalmann, A. Plöger, G. Rath and C. von Holst
Abstract 211
1. Introduction 212
2. Results 213
3. The proposed control strategy 231
4. Future work 233
Acknowledgements 234
References 234

Novel approaches for the determination of probiotics in feed in the context of official control 235 R.G.K. Leuschner
Abstract 235
1. Introduction 235
2. Methods of analysis 236
3. Enumeration methods 237
4. Molecular identification methods 240
5. Conclusions 243
Acknowledgements 244
References 244

Pitfalls and challenges for the official control of enzymes in feed 249 R. Ziebal
Abstract 249
1. Introduction 249
2. Methods of analysis of enzyme activities in feed additives 250
3. Methods of analysis of enzyme activities in premixtures and feeds 252
4. Problems associated with official control 253
5. Conclusions 253
References 254

New authorisation of feed additives in the EU: the role of the Community Reference Laboratory and the network of National Reference Laboratories 255 C. von Holst, A.M. Jensen and G. Simone
Abstract 255
1. Introduction 255
2. The tasks of the CRL 256
3. The evaluation of analytical methods for feed additives – a challenging task 258
4. The tools of the CRL 259
5. The evaluation of the analytical methods 264
Acknowledgements 267
References 268

The role of enzymes and betaine in antibiotic growth promoter free nutrition 269 M. Hruby and A. J. Cowieson
Abstract 269
1. Introduction 269
2. The benefits of AGPs 270
3. Alternatives to AGPs 271
4. Nutrition and the intestinal microflora 271
5. The role of feed enzymes in AGP-free nutrition 273
6. The role of betaine in AGP-free nutrition 277
7. Conclusions 281
References 281

Interfacing gut health and nutrition: the use of dietary pre- and probiotics to maximise growth performance in pigs and poultry 289 A. Kocher
Abstract 289
1. Introduction 289
2. Terminology: pre- and probiotics 290
3. Gut microbial populations 291
4. Indigenous beneficial bacteria 293
5. Probiotics affect intestinal microflora – mode of action 294
6. Role of carbohydrates in bacterial adhesion 296
7. The use of oligosaccharides to control intestinal health - prebiotics: mode of action 297
8. Immunomodulation: activity of pre- and probiotics 299
9. Effectiveness: pre-and probiotic as a tool to maximise growth performance 301
10. Conclusions 304
References 305

Acidification of diets as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters 311 G. Diebold and U. Eidelsburger
Abstract 311
1. Introduction 311
2. Mode of action of organic acids 312
3. Acidification of diets for pigs 314
4. Effect of the acid anion 317
5. Combinations of acid and salt 319
6. Organic acids and phytase act synergistically 323
7. Organic acids in poultry 324
8. Conclusions 324
References 324
Are herbs, botanicals and other related substances adequate replacements for antimicrobial growth promoters? 329
C. Wenk
Abstract 329
1. Introduction: Herbs and botanicals as alternatives for antibiotics 329
2. What are herbs, botanicals or essential oils? 331
3. Modes of action of herbs and botanicals 332
4. Influence of herbs or botanicals on feed intake and growth performance 333
5. Antimicrobial and coccidiostatic activity of herbs and botanicals 335
6. Conclusions 338
References 339

Bacteriophage: a safe and natural alternative to AGPs 341 W.E. Huff, G.R. Huff, N.C. Rath, J.M. Balog and A.M. Donoghue
Abstract 341
1. Introduction 342
2. Materials and methods 345
3. Results 348
4. Discussion 354
5. Conclusions 357
Acknowledgements 358
References 358

Intestinal genomics for the evaluation of alternatives to AGPs: current situation and perspectives 361 T.A. Niewold
Abstract 361
1. Introduction 362
2. Methodology 364
3. Current situation and perspectives 366
4. Conclusion 366
References 367

Nutrition: immunomodulation towards Th1 or Th2 responses 369 B.M. Goddeeris
Abstract 369
1. Introduction 369
2. The immune orchestra 371
3. The acute phase response and the arachidonic acid cycle 373
4. Nutritional modulation of immune responses 374
5. Conclusion 380
References 380

Setting and meeting standards for the efficient replacement of pronutrient antibiotics in poultry and pig nutrition 381 G.D. Rosen
Abstract 381
1. Introduction 381
2. Materials and methods 382
3. Results 384
4. Applications and discussion 388
5. Conclusions 395
References 396

Appropriate use of antimicrobial growth promoters: oxymoron or opportunity? 399 S.W. Page
Abstract 399
1. Introduction 399
2. Appropriate use 400
3. Risk assessment 401
4. Risk management 402
5. Conclusions 407
References 407
Index 413

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Additional information

ISBN13: 9789076998879
Format: Hardback
Pages: 422
Language: English
Published: 2006

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This books weighs: 930g

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